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Hydroxyl Production Levels
Reduction of Airborne Pathogens
At the Aerosol Research & Engineering Laboratories (ARE Labs), a U.S. laboratory specializing in the study of aerosolized microorganisms, Pyure conducted an evaluation of the reduction of several pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and mold.
- Two viruses were selected to evaluate performance against RNA and DNA based viruses
- Two vegetative bacteria were selected as simulants for a broad range of pathogenic bacteria.
- One species of black mold
Reduction Of Surface Pathogens
Pyure efficacy was evaluated on five biosecurity level one (BSL-1) microorganisms that are considered representative of a broader range of more pathogenic organisms.
Study of the impact of the COVID-19 Virus
A study was designed and conducted by Innovative Bioanalysis LLC, a biosafety level 3 laboratory. The study demonstrated the efficacy of the Pyure device in reducing SARS-CoV-2, both in aerosolized form and on surfaces. Innovative Bioanalysis is certified laboratory located in Costa Mesa, Calif.
Safety and Toxicity
Comparative Biosciences, Inc. in compliance with the US Food & Drug Administration GLP regulations (21 CFR Part 58), conducted a 13-week toxicity study on the effects of elevated Pyure output levels on a statistically significant population of rats. Rat exposure levels were 2 to 3 times higher than the maximum levels recommended by Pyure. The results showed no adverse effects on treated animals vs. control animals after continuous exposure for 13 weeks, neither at the gross or cellular level.
This toxicity study, along with the mechanism of action and pathogen destruction studies, were submitted to the FDA as part of the 510k registration and listing for the Odorox® MDU/Rx™ unit. As part of the FDA submission, a review of NIH, CDC and other relevant government databases was conducted. The review did not reveal any data or evidence that natural or artificial hydroxyls are in any way toxic to humans, animals or plants.
Mechanism of Action
A study conducted at the Lovelace Respiratory and Research Institute (LRRI), in an ultra-clean environmental chamber demonstrated that:
- Hydroxyl production levels of an Odorox® Boss™ unit are similar to the hydroxyl concentrations produced by sunlight outdoors
- Hydroxyls react within 20-40 milliseconds with volatile organic compounds (VOC) and generate powerful organic oxidants stable enough to circulate throughout the treatment space and sanitize air and surfaces
- The reaction rate of hydroxyls with VOC is a million times faster than ozone
- A very small quantity of ozone is produced as a by-product of hydroxyl production, but the concentrations produced stay well within safe limits for occupied spaces
These results were subsequently published in a peer reviewed scientific journal. (David R. Crosley, Connie J. Araps, Melanie Doyle-Eisele & Jacob D. McDonald (2017) Gas-phase photolytic production of hydroxyl radicals in an ultraviolet purifier for air and surfaces, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 67:2, 231-240, DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2016.1229236).
A study of Pyure Technology’s impact on indoor air quality was conducted by Columbia Analytical Services.
The study examined the chemistry that resulted from hydroxyl decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The study revealed that operating a Pyure device significantly reduced total VOC levels, resulting in better indoor air quality. The VOC were rapidly decomposed and the steady state amounts of intermediate organic compounds, including formaldehyde, other aldehydes, ketones and alcohols did not accumulate while the Pyure device was running. The study detected very low levels of ozone (less than 15 parts per billion), far below the 50 part-per-billion maximum established by the FDA for continuous exposure. The study confirmed that Pyure Technology improves indoor air quality.
Hydroxyls vs Ozone
Pyure Technology uses UV energy to produce hydroxyls from water vapour, a process that also produces trace quantities of ozone as a by-product. The sanitization power of Pyure Technology is driven by hydroxyls, not ozone. Hydroxyls are a million times more reactive than ozone.
Pyure Hydroxyl Production
It takes only a few parts per billion of hydroxyls to rapidly sanitize a space. Pyure devices produce hydroxyls at the same rate as nature.
Organic oxidants are formed when hydroxyls react with ambient volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxygen. Organic oxidants are more stable than hydroxyls, allowing them to circulate through a treated space and clean, like they do in nature.